Kane was born on 9 August 1990 in Claremont, a suburb in Perth. Her father is Scottish (from Glasgow) and her mother has Scottish, Irish, and French ancestry. She grew up in Perth, Western Australia and attended St Hilda's Anglican School for Girls. When she joined the cast of Neighbours she and her family moved to Melbourne, Victoria. Kane was picked to join the cast of Neighbours as Lolly Allen after she entered a competition run by Dolly magazine in 2006. She was given a three-month contract with the show, and left her class at St Hilda's Anglican School for Girls to move to Melbourne, where Neighbours is produced. In December 2006 Kane announced that she would be leaving the show after her contract was not renewed. At the time of the announcement Kane had not yet appeared as Lolly, and there were growing rumors that she was difficult to work with. From March to December 2009 Kane portrayed Tenaya 7 on Power Rangers RPM, part of the long-running Power Rangers franchise. In April 2010 Kane starred in the television film Secrets of the Mountain on NBC. In 2010 Kane also starred in the Hulu series Pretty Tough. In November 2012 it was announced that Kane had joined the cast of Teen Wolf as Cora. In February 2013 Kane was cast as Mary, Queen of Scots in the CW period drama series Reign. Kane starred in Scott Speer's short thriller film Realm in 2015, which is set to become a full-length film with a release date in 2016.
Flown over to test for Cartoon Network's first live action series, Unnatural History (2010), for the role of "Maggie Winnock". There were two actresses selected to test, Adelaide Kane and Italia Ricci. The role later went to Italia.
Her father is Scottish, from Glasgow, and her mother has Scottish, Irish, and French ancestry.